Validating flash dumps

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Contents

Why so important?

Whenever you want to mess with flash (NAND or NOR), you have to make sure you are getting 100% correct, valid, verified dumps.

Warning

If you do not validate your flash, and for some reason(s) the dump is invalid/bad, and you are rewriting to flash, you have no way of restoring the console hence making a perma-brick (unrecoverable brick).

So what can we use to prevent that, and make sure our dumps are as proper as we can check?

Visual inspection

HxD - hexeditor

Open up the flashdump (make it unified first if it is still 2 seperate NAND dumps) with a hexeditor (e.g. HxD)
and compare what you see with the Flash page.

Statistical analysis

One neat option in HxD is the analysis option. Open dump file and select Statistics in the Analysis menu. Mouse over the blue graph bars of 00 and FF

Valid dumps will have

Value NAND NOR
00's 1.43% - 2.68% 18.71% - 29.01%
FF's 18.25% - 24.54% 10.42% - 10.48%
rest below 0.5% below 0.5%

Bytereversed

  00 00 00 00 AC 0F FF E0 00 00 00 00 AD DE EF BE  (HEX)   and   saceru_eoldare  (Text)
  instead of
  00 00 00 00 0F AC E0 FF 00 00 00 00 DE AD BE EF  (HEX)   and   asecure_loader  (Text)

You can use either the bytereverse option in the the flasher application and redump, or bytereverse the current dump with Flowrebuilder.

Only zeroes

00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 where data should've been
  • Seems reading is a problem, mostly caused by bad wiring/clip seating -> check

patterned non zeroes / patterned non ff's

  30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30
  00 80 00 80 00 80 00 80 00 80 00 80 00 80 00 80   where zeroes should've been
  EF FF EF FF EF FF EF FF EF FF EF FF EF FF EF FF   where FF's should've been
  • Seems reading is a problem, mostly caused by bad wiring/clip seating -> check
  • Can also be caused by bad grounding, too low Vcc, interference or too long wires -> check

patterned FF's

  FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF   repetive banding of FF's where data or zeroes should have been
  • Seems reading is a problem, mostly caused by bad wiring/clip seating -> check

malformed headers / filenames / regionnames

  IJI              instead of   IFI
  asecure_loaher                asecure_loader
  eIIH                          eEID
  cESH                          cISD
  cCSH                          cCSD
  trvg_prk0                     trvk_prg0
  trvg_prk1                     trvk_prg1
  trvg_pkk0                     trvk_pkg0
  trvg_pkk1                     trvk_pkg1
  cztrm                         cvtrm
  mitldr                        metldr
  • Seems reading is a problem, mostly caused by bad wiring/clip seating -> check

absent files / regions

  00FC0000  FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF  ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ    missing bootldr in NOR
  00000000  FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF  ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ    missing bootldr in NAND
  • Seems reading is a problem, mostly caused by bad wiring/clip seating -> check

malformed files / regions

  00FC0000  28 B4 4F D2 F9 3F BC 43 28 B4 4F D2 F9 3F BC 43  (´OÒù?¼C(´OÒù?¼C    corrupted bootldr in NOR (it should always start with 00 00 there)
  • Seems reading is a problem, mostly caused by bad wiring/clip seating -> check

Repetitions

take 16 bytes of an offset that should be unique, e.g. the 0x10 offset which normaly has the DEADBEEF magic header :

  NOR: 0x0000010 00 00 00 00 0F AC E0 FF 00 00 00 00 DE AD BE EF  //  NAND: 0x040010 00 00 00 00 0F AC E0 FF 00 00 00 00 DE AD BE EF

And find all instances in hexeditor
When it says found in 0x10 and 0x10010 you substract them (0x10010 - 0x10 = 0x10000)
So that means there is an error with setting 0x10000 (only one bit set!) low
because the programmer applies 0x10010 but the actual data on the address lines (received by the nor flash) is 0x10

Checking again with other unique 16 byte sequence

  617365637572655F6C6F616465720000 (asecure_loader in hex)

Same check, found at 0x420 and 0x10420 (0x10420-0x420 = 0x10000)

OK, you've found the pattern, now how do we deduct from that the faulty line?

address is 2 bytes. 0x10 in dump with hexeditor is in reality 0x8 on the address bus because we read 2 bytes at once
so the address is no longer 0x10000 but 0x8000
0x8000 (hexadecimal = base 16) = 1000 0000 0000 0000 (binary = base 2)
which means the 16th bit = 1, we start counting at A0, so the 16th is A15

conclusion : A15 is bad


Quick lookup table

repetition addressline 'stuck'
0x2 A0
0x4 A1
0x8 A2
0x10 A3
0x20 A4
0x40 A5
0x80 A6
0x100 A7
0x200 A8
0x400 A9
0x800 A10
0x1000 A11
0x2000 A12
0x4000 A13
0x8000 A14
0x10000 A15
0x20000 A16
0x40000 A17
0x80000 A18
0x100000 A19
0x200000 A20
0x400000 A21
0x800000 A22
0x1000000 A23
0x2000000 A24
0x4000000 A25
0x8000000 A26
0x10000000 A27
0x20000000 A28
0x40000000 A29
0x80000000 A30

Check metldr+bootldr sizes

Warning

If they are even missing or bad, its a sure road to permabrick


You can check metldr and bootldr sizes easily with HxD

  • either after extracting flash with Flowrebuilder and opening seperate files
  • or by looking in the unextracted Flash dump at the correct offset.

This table lists some common known values for your convenience as quick lookup:

IDPS/Target_ID SKU - Datecode / Manufacturing date metldr offset bootldr Notes low
ver
chk
0x2F077 (NOR)
0x80877 (NAND)
0x81E (NOR)
0x4081E (NAND)
0x842 (NOR)
0x40842 (NAND)
size 0xFC0002 (NOR)
0x0 (NAND)
0xFC0012 (NOR)
0x12 (NAND)
01
03
CECHAxx (COK-001) with 1.00 from factory
CECHCxx (COK-002)
ED A0 0E D6 - - - incomplete dump
01
04
CECHAxx (COK-001)
CECHExx (COK-002)
EE 10 0E DD 2A430 2A 3F 2A 3F OK
01
02
DECHAxx (COK-001)
CECHBxx (COK-001)
ED A0 0E D6 2A2E0 2A 2A 2A 2A OK 1.00
03 CECHCxx (COK-002) with 1.00 from factory EB F0 0E BB 30480 30 44 30 44 OK 1.00
01
03
CECHAxx (COK-001)
CECHCxx (COK-002)
ED E0 0E DA 2A3B0 2A 37 2A 37 OK 1.00
05 CECHGxx (SEM-001) E7 B0 0E 77 2E900 2E 8C 2E 8C OK 1.90
05
06
CECHGxx (SEM-001)
CECHHxx (DIA-001)
E7 B0 0E 77 2F200 2F 1C 2F 1C OK 2.30
05
06
CECHGxx (SEM-001)
CECHHxx (DIA-001)
E8 C0 0E 88 2EF80 2E F4 2E F4 OK 2.30
06 CECHHxx (DIA-001) E8 E0 0E 8A 2EF80 2E F4 2E F4 OK 1.97
06 CECHMxx (DIA-001) EA 60 0E A2 2EE70 2E E3 2E E3 OK 1.97
07 CECHJxx (DIA-002)
CECHKxx (DIA-002) datecode 8C
EA 60 0E A2 2EE70 2E E3 2E E3 OK
2.30
08 CECHLxx / CECHPxx (VER-001) E8 D0 0E 89 2EAF0 2E AB 2E AB OK 2.45
08 CECHLxx (VER-001) E8 D0 0E 89 2EB70 2E B3 2E B3 OK 2.45
08
09
CECHLxx (VER-001) with 2.30 from factory - datecode unknown
CECH-20xx (DYN-001) with 2.76 from factory
E8 90 0E 85 2F170 2F 13 2F 13 OK
2.70
09 CECH-20xx (DYN-001) E9 20 0E 8E 2F3F0 2F 3B 2F 3B OK 2.70
0A CECH-21xx (SUR-001) E9 20 0E 8E 2F4F0 2F 4B 2F 4B OK 3.20
03
0B
0B
CECHExx (COK-002W) refurbished
CECH-25xx (JTP-001) with 3.40 from factory - datecode OC
CECH-25xx (JSD-001) with 3.41 from factory - datecode OC
E9 20 0E 8E 2F4F0 2F 4B 2F 4B OK 3.40
0B CECH-25xx (JSD-001) with 3.56 from factory - datecode 0D
CECH-25xx (JTP-001) with 3.56 from factory - datecode 1A
E9 60 0E 92 2F570 2F 53 2F 53 OK 3.50
0B CECH-25xx (JTP-001) with 3.56 from factory - datecode 1B E9 60 0E 92 2F5F0 2F 5B 2F 5B (RLOD+)poweroff @ downgrade 355 3.56
0B
0B
0C
CECH-25xx (JSD-001) with 3.60 from factory - datecode 1B
CECH-25xx (JTP-001) with 3.60 from factory - datecode [N.A.]
CECH-30xx (KTE-001) with 3.65 from factory - datecode [N.A.]
F9 20 0F 8E 2FFF0 2F FB 2F FB "metldr.2"
(RLOD+)poweroff @ downgrade 355
3.60
0D CECH-40xx - - - - - (RLOD+)poweroff @ downgrade 355  ?4.10?

Flowrebuilder

Flow Rebuilder

Links to versions

http://www.ps3devwiki.com/files/flash/Tools/Flowrebuilder/

Flowrebuilder options

  • (NAND only) UNSCRAMBLE then interleave two NAND flashes into one unified dump - (4.1.0.0 and higher) : Makes a unified dump.bin from 2 seperate NAND flash dumps.
    • In the second step it also extract the content of the unified dump. Make sure it extracts correctly (it will give no warning if it fails!) and all the needed files are there.
  • (NAND only) RE-SCRAMBLE a modified dump then de-interleave it into two new flashes - (4.1.0.0 and higher) : Splits the unified dump.bin into 2 new seperate NAND flash dumps.
  • Byte reverse and EXTRACT a NOR dump file - (4.1.0.0 and higher) : First byte reverse the single dump.bin then extract NOR content.
  • EXTRACT a Byte reversed NOR dump or an interleaved and unscrambled NAND dump - (4.1.0.0 and higher) : Extract the single dump.bin.
  • Byte reverse and PATCH a NOR dump - (4.2.1.1 and higher).
  • PATCH a Byte reversed NOR dump or an interleaved and unscrambled NAND dump - (4.2.1.1 and higher).
  • Byte reverse a dump - (4.2.1.1 and higher).

Note: when getting errors with autopatcher, use Winskeet to patch the unified dump and then Flowrebuilder to Rescramble it. -> Fixed in FlowRebuilder v.4.2.1.2

Extracted flash content files

Flowrebuilder extraction no error

Flowrebuilder extraction error

(make sure they are all there, flowrebuilder will not give warning when it fails!):

  • bootloader_0
  • bootloader_1 (NAND only)
  • cCSD
  • cISD
  • creserved_0 (NAND only)
  • cvtrm
  • eEID
  • trvk_pkg
  • trvk_prg
  • \asecure_loader\metldr
  • \ros\[two seperate folders named to FW version]\CoreOS files (19 up to 25 files, depending the FW version)

Notes:

  • if it only extracted bootloader_0 + bootloader_1, check that both NANDs are dumped correct (known error with flashers that has bug with second NAND channel to read), and that high/low where selected correct.
  • Do not use spaces in the folderpath, or Flowrebuilder will not extract the files.
  • Bug workaround: delete previous extraction attempts to prevent Flowrebuilder to always error. -> bugreport -> Fixed in FlowRebuilder v.4.2.2.0

From unified to seperate low/high NAND files

If for some reason you lose the original seperate low/high NAND files and only have the unified, you need donor files to regenerate them.

extract and in Flowrebuilder select the option "RE-SCRAMBLE a modified dump then de-interleave it into two new flashes"

  • Select the NAND backup "Flash 0" (TOP) file : here drop the 1bkp.bin
  • Select the NAND backup "Flash 1" (BOTTOM) file : here drop the 2bkp.bin
  • Select the Input NAND interleaved Modified file : here drop your unified flash .bin file

and click Execute Operation

This will result in making 2 new deinterleaved files you could use for reflashing (it is recommended to alway use your own deinterleaved sourcedumps, this method is only mentioned as last resort for people that lost their backups).

Online help

Upload your dump to a fileshare host (e.g. http://www.mediafire.com/ or http://www.mirrorcreator.com/) and join IRC ef.net in channel #ps3downgrade (tip: use a real IRC client e.g. Xchat-WDK instead of webhosts like mibbit)

Note: when uploading NAND dumps, make sure to upload the seperate NAND files, not the unified! This makes it easier to trace user errors in the descrambling/unification process.

Please use this method only after you first tried the above options first (so you have learned from it as well) :) Tip: look on talkpage for a step by step guide (and please improve where possible).